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Many hydraulic systems leak. In fact, some businesses can and do waste vast amounts of money by not being serious about tracking down and rectifying fluid leakages on their machines. As with any task, it’s critical that you start at the beginning.
We recommend to our clients that they keep a record of how much oil is going into any system, and how much oil comes out when it’s time to do a swap out. If you put in a certain number of litres, but you’re getting less out, you know that it must have gone somewhere – whether it’s an internal or external leak. However, these measurements will need to be scheduled into your top-off process or they are quite unlikely to happen. Those that do perform this task are most often very surprised about the amount of fluid that is going missing from their hydraulic system and the associated financial cost of it.
One of the most common places to find a leak is around the rams, motors and pump. It’s down to the high pressure and the constant movement in this area. With pressure being anywhere in the range of 1000 PSI and 5000 PSI, it’s not surprising that some fluid gets pushed out of the system.
If looking for symptoms, the first thing that operators will notice is a lack of power or force. Alternatively, they notice a drip or a leak. If this is coming from seals, it’s a highly skilled job to replace hydraulic seals. Not only is it necessary to have familiarity with the system in question, but specialist tools are required to perform the job. Components are sensitive to damage due to close tolerances or if the wrong tool is applied or through improper handling.
Unfortunately, there is an associated downtime with fixing leaks. If leaks are left to get out of hand, then it can even get to the point where it’s going to be cheaper to take the machine out of service and get a specialist in to fix the leaks rather than to continue to keep topping up the fluid level.
We know of a business that had a terrible leakage issue. They looked into how much it would cost to repair including the hire of the specialist and parts and found that £20,000 was a lot to stomach. However, when they looked into how much their oil was costing to replace on a weekly basis, it was around £1000. This meant that over a period of time, they would reach the point where it would be far cheaper to fix the leaks rather than to continue to pay out for the replacement fluid week after week.
What we’ve put here though is actually a simplified interpretation of the costs involved. Not only is there the cost of the oil, but there is also the associated cost of safety risks, proper clean up and disposal of the fluid. There is also the issue that where oil can exit, it’s also possible for contamination to enter. There is then the cost of the filters to remove those contaminants.
If you want to eliminate risks, here is a checklist of the approaches to take:
· Design them out. Remove connectors as that is where the leak is coming from. Do what you can to install integrated hydraulic circuits.
· Replace connectors. Select the more superior connection types that do not have threads, and therefore do not have leak paths.
· Tighten them. Quite often the torque is incorrect and this means improper contact.
· Eliminate vibration. Vibration can affect connector torque.
· Run the machine cool. Hydraulic fluid needs to be maintained at reasonable levels of temperature to avoid seal damage.
Hydraulics has been around for a very long time. But are you aware of how far it has actually come? You wouldn’t be alone if you responded with no. It is a very technical subject that can be quite difficult to understand, but in this article we want to tell you the story of hydraulics! We want to share with you who discovered hydraulics, what it was originally used for and how hydraulic power got to where it is today.
So why don’t we start at the beginning! Where does the word hydraulic come from?
The word hydraulic originates from the Greek word ‘Hydros’ which means water. Why water? Well, this is because water was the first liquid to be used in the hydraulic system. Today, hydraulics includes the physical behaviour of all liquids, not just water.
In this article we want to explain the ins and outs of hydraulic powerpacks. A vital piece of equipment that is used with so many machines we see every day.
In a nutshell, hydraulic powerpacks are self contained units that are used instead of a built in power supply for hydraulic machinery. Hydraulic power uses fluid to transmit power from one location to another in order to run a machine. It really is as simple as that.
So what do they look like?
In order to recognise and better understand hydraulic powerpacks, it is a good idea to get to know the key components. Hydraulic powerpacks come in many different shapes and sizes, some are very large and stationary whereas others are much smaller and more compact. In fact, some hydraulic powerpacks are so compact that they can easily be transported in a small van or even an estate car.
The only real way to identify hydraulic powerpacks is through its main components. No matter the size of the unit, all power packs will have the following; a hydraulic reservoir, regulators, a pump, motor, pressure supply lines and relief lines.
What do these components do?
It may be obvious to some but in this post we wanted to explain every component as simply as possible. So here goes.
First up is the hydraulic reservoir which quite simply holds the fluid. Reservoirs will come in different sizes.
Then we have the regulators. Regulators are vital as they control and maintain the amount of pressure that the hydraulic powerpack delivers.
Thirdly we have the pressure supply lines and relief lines. The supply line simply supplies fluid under pressure to the pump and the relief lines relieve pressure between the pump and the valves. The relief lines also control the direction of flow through the system.
Finally we have the pump and a motor. We will begin with the simpler component of the two, the motor. The motor is simply there to power the pump. Easy as that. Now the pump generally performs two actions. Firstly, it operates as a vacuum at the pump inlet and through atmospheric pressure forces fluid from the reservoir into the inlet line and then to the pump. It then delivers the fluid to the pump outlet and pumps it into the hydraulic system. We did warn you that the second part would be slightly more confusing.
So what is the function of hydraulic powerpacks?
Hydraulic powerpacks deliver power through a control valve which in turn runs the machine it is connected to. Hydraulic powerpacks come with a variety of valve connections. This means that you can power a variety of machines by using the appropriate valves.
Hydraulic powerpacks are relied upon by a range of different machines that use hydraulic power to do its work. If a machine is required to carry out heavy or systematic lifting then its likely it would need help from a hydraulic powerpack.
To make it easier for you to understand, we have included a list of trades that regularly rely on our powerpacks. On a building site you will see machines like bulldozers and excavators, which both need hydraulic powerpacks. But, it is not just on building sites that you will find these types of machines. Fishermen and mechanics both need hydraulic powerpacks too. If we did not have them then how would fishermen lift their nets or how would mechanics lift our cars?
When picking a hydraulic powerpack there are a variety of pumps and options to pick from and it is important to pick the right pack to meet your machines needs. It is also important to consider a pack that will help maximise productivity and minimise cost.
Many people will overlook the necessity of hydraulic powerpacks, but they really are vital to ensuring our society runs efficiently.
Do you need to maintain hydraulic powerpacks?
Yes you do and this is hugely important! Hydraulic powerpacks require regular maintenance to ensure they are working properly and safely and to help extend their life. Maintaining hydraulic powerpacks is relatively simple and includes checking the tubing, this can be for any noticeable problems such as dents or cracks. It is also vital to regularly change the hydraulic fluid and look at the reservoir to check for any corrosion or rust.
What hydraulic powerpacks do we provide?
Generally we provide four different types of hydraulic powerpacks. You can pick from a standard powerpack, a mini powerpack, a micro powerpack or a bespoke powerpack.
The standard hydraulic powerpack uses a standard range of modular components and is ideal for the most demanding industrial applications. The mini powerpack is ideal for applications requiring up to 5.5kW. The micro hydraulic powerpacks were originally produced for mobility applications, so are great for when space is limited. Finally, if none of these seem to fit your needs then we offer bespoke hydraulic powerpacks ensuring your application gets the hydraulic powerpack it requires.
Finally, who is the genius behind hydraulic powerpacks?
The man behind hydraulics was Laissez Pascal. A French mathematician, physicist and religious philosopher who lived in the mid seventeenth century. Pascal made observations about fluid and pressure which led to Pascal’s law. Pascal's law states that when there is an increase in pressure at any point in a confined fluid, there is an equal increase at every other point in the container. Hydraulic powerpacks have been designed based on Pascal's law of physics, drawing their power from ratios of area and pressure.
So, interested in our Power Packs? Come on over to the main website and see what we can do for your Hydraulic Power Pack Needs .
Contaminated hydraulic oil is the biggest cause of system failure in hydraulic machinery and often it is entirely avoidable. Mistakes happen, and there is always room for improvement in maintenance and routine replacement activities which can help reduce contaminants in the system. Even when you have got everything right in that area, there are still extra tweaks you can make or things to avoid when refining your hydraulic machinery care process.
Using the correct weight and ISO rated hydraulic oil is essential operating practise with any type of hydraulic equipment. Using liquid that is too thin or one designed specifically for a different type of motor, can cause serious damage to the internal parts through overheating or having an unsuitable level of intrinsic contamination. However, it is possible to go one step further than simply using a dedicated oil; By checking the ISO rating of the standard oil and the rating that the machinery requires, and then using one with lower ratings, i.e. with a higher level of cleanliness it is possible to improve the lifespan of components operating at a higher than average pressure, speed or length of operation. These factors affect the suitability of the standard hydraulic oil for any particular system and by taking into account any higher than average operational requirements, it is possible to avoid premature component failure caused by contamination levels in the fluid.
When looking at whether a different rated hydraulic fluid would be more suitable for your system and deciding to opt for a lower rated one, it is important that this decision is made with the most sensitive component in mind. It may be a case of using the hydraulic fluid with that rating, or of installing added filtration systems before that part of the system, in order to clean the fluid as it passes through that part. They say an army marches at the pace of the slowest person and it is similar concept to choosing hydraulic oil and filtration systems, when there are different levels of capability and tolerance between the component parts.
As a guide, the typical cleanliness required of hydraulic fluid for different types of components is as follows:
Servo control valves
Vane and piston pumps
Direction and pressure control valves
Gear pumps and motors
Flow control valves and cylinders
An avoidable source of contamination in hydraulic fluid is paint flakes or rust in the system. Sometimes a decision will be made to paint the inside of a hydraulic reservoir to prevent rusting, and on the surface. This may seem like a sensible decision as tanks are not cheap to replace and when a piece of machinery is expected to last a long time, it is reasonable to take precautions against such problems. Rust in hydraulic reservoirs can be caused by condensation and settled water in the space above the oil level, but a simpler solution is to keep the reservoir topped up and using a hygroscopic breather to reduce the potential for any water or vapour to form. Painting the tank with a rust proof paint may not cause any problems, but the potential is definitely there and the risk is not worth taking.
Monitoring the cleanliness of hydraulic oil at all stages of its journey round the system is important for maintenance and replacement of filters and elements, but also for the daily operation of the machinery. When it is possible to check that everything is operating as it should, then the focus can remain on the job at hand. Monitoring also alerts users to a potential problem, as if the contamination level of the hydraulic fluid is too high at a particular point, an alarm or warning light can be deployed and the machinery switched off while the hydraulic fluid or filter element is replaced. Being aware and alert to these issues and resolving them before they cause damage to the parts, is preferable to continuing blindly and then incurring hefty costs down the line.
The steps outlined above go a lot further than simple best practice – these are next-level preventative activities, that can save time and money for companies already acting in a contamination-aware manner. There are always small improvements that can be made to the operation of hydraulic machinery and it is hard to implement them all, but at least the knowledge expansion can inform suitable changes to your operating practices.
Throughout the history of automotive development hydraulics have played a critical role in the engineering of brakes, steering and gears, as well as suspension. Specialist functions on road going vehicles as well as vehicles designed for non-road use, such as tractors, other agricultural machinery and military vehicles, also use hydraulic power to effect movement of harvesting machinery, aerial ladders and artillery. Hydraulic engineering offers a tested and trusted way of effecting actions with a quick response time and most importantly, it is reliable, efficient, and easier to fix than electrical systems designed to do the same.
Electrical systems are becoming more commonplace in road going vehicles, as the move to all electric or hybrid powered cars starts to take off in the mainstream. Electric actuators are starting to replace their hydraulic equivalent in some systems, especially those from manufacturers who are pro-actively making advances in alternative car design; self-driving cars and fully electric vehicles are pushing electric actuators to the fore of the minds of automotive designers. The appeal to designers is the easy integration of electrical components into an existing electrical system; if most of the controls are electric rather than mechanical it makes sense to extend the same technology as far as possible. Electric actuators are cheaper, easier to control and generally last as well as hydraulic actuators, and it is far easier to work these into the wiring and software system of a vehicle than to install a separate hydraulic system just to run the brakes, or the gearbox.
Advanced braking systems are one of the more important uses of hydraulics in motor vehicles. Hydraulically operated brakes are much more responsive and deploy very quickly compared to electric brakes. Although there is an argument for electric motors being used to achieve regenerative braking in electric and hybrid vehicles, these systems still use hydraulics for the quick action that is required when the brake pedal is pressed. ABS systems also rely heavily on the speed with which hydraulic brakes act; a miniature hydraulic power pack controls the system to deploy the brakes up to sixteen times per second in a skid situation, a speed which cannot be achieved by electric actuators. Mechanical brakes have a strong future in motor vehicles for safety reasons, and this will remain the case until electric actuators can replicate the speed at which a hydraulic system can function.
Gearboxes have been hydraulically operated since the early 1940s, when General Motors introduced the technology to its range. Although they were first developed in the 1920s, it took a while for the new design to be accepted and fitted in the new cars they were producing, but very little has changed since, apart from the introduction of solenoid valves in the early 2000s. Electric systems are now integrated into the control of the gearbox, especially for the twin clutch, but the mechanics at the centre of gearbox function are still hydraulic. This is one of the areas in which electrics will really have to try hard to oust hydraulics, and the only way hydraulics will be replaced here, may be if an engine can be developed where a gearbox is no longer needed.
Motor vehicles have used hydraulic dampers in suspension systems since the humble leaf spring fell out of favour. Even though some modern suspension systems (which allow the driver to adjust the settings for a particular driving style or road type) use electrics to adjust the shock settings, it is still hydraulics that effects the suspension action. Even electric vehicles use hydraulic suspension, as it is the best solution, and despite some manufacturers looking to recover energy from bumps in the road through an electrical suspension system, the complexity of such a system is not worth the small amount of energy that may be recovered, and certainly not at the cost of replacing a very capable suspension solution with something more expensive and difficult to fix.
Power steering used to be a hydraulic aid to assist drivers in steering and parking; right up to the 1990s there were still cars on the road that did not have power steering and anyone who has ever driven one, will attest to the huge difference that power steering makes to the driver. The first power steering systems used hydraulic pumps to provide the driver with extra power, but these have long since been replaced with electric motors. Self-parking cars are already widely available and these would not be possible without electrically operated steering. Power assisted steering is one area where hydraulics has already fallen out of favour and electrics have taken over.
Hydraproducts' miniature and micro hydraulic power packs are ideal for the automotive industry, and are perfectly suited to use in suspension, braking and power steering systems. Although there are some areas of automotive engineering where electrics have taken over, the key areas mentioned above are safe for now. Other areas have seen a better integration of electric and hydraulic systems, with the benefits of each being user harmoniously to affect the best system possible. As new designers emerge into the automotive market and look to shake things up, we may see electrics replacing hydraulics at least in the design and testing stage, but the reliability and relative simplicity of hydraulics means it will always have a place in the automotive industry.
Hydraulic filtration is a vital component of keeping a system running smoothly.
For example, did you know that up to 75% of failures with fluid power can be attributed to contamination? With the use of hydraulic filters, contamination damage can be significantly lowered which can not only cut down on expense but lower that 75% drastically.
If you’re looking to save costs from less downtime then it’s also time you looked into what a difference hydraulics filtration can make for extending the life of your equipment. Running your system optimally is essential when it comes to cost saving, but protecting its longevity is also a critical element in running any business efficiently.
Muck and dust can destroy a hydraulic system, that’s why it’s essential to make the best use of hydraulic filters. You wouldn’t even be able to remove that dirt yourself, as it’s likely to be dust that is so fine that you won’t be able to see it without the use of a microscope. Dirt has the same detrimental effect as sandpaper or gravel and not only will generally deteriorate the system, but it could even destroy it.
However, through the use of a hydraulic filter system you will be able to maintain control over the level of contamination and by doing so reduce the failure of systems by as much as 75% just be removing that dirt.
Hydraulic parts are expensive. Combine that with down time and having to keep engineers on hand to fix worn components and that’s a lot of expense to deal with. Putting filters into place can even save costs by increasing how long the hydraulic fluid will last.
Degradation of fluid – hydraulic fluid that contains fine metallic particles can degrade rapidly through chemical breakdown. Without protecting against this, there could be issues such as slippage, internal leakage, corrosion or sticking parts.
Scoring of surfaces – this can occur when particles get trapped between surfaces of seals
There’s no doubt about it, but …
· System performance is affected by dirt levels
· Hydraulic filters can control levels of dirt. Without using this management method, the system will get dirtier and dirtier until it fails.
In fact, hydraulic filters are the only way to control how much dirt is in fluid. Without them you will be forced to change out the hydraulic fluid regularly, which can be a time consuming and costly event.
Hydraulic system dirt particles are incredibly small. In fact, they are so small that they cannot be seen by the human eye – and 98% of hydraulic fluid has some dirt in it.
Engineers have found that when it comes to size of particles in samples taken from operating systems, the smaller the particles, the more dirt there is in the system.
So where do these particles come from that we have to work so hard to deal with?
In order to have an idea of what goes on inside the closed system, let’s examine where these particles come from.
Instead of enjoying the typical 20 gpm that is the measurement of a pumped flow from a 2000 psi system, you can expect to see something in the region of just 10 gpm. Although your pump will still produce for you, you’ll discover that the degradation results in just 50% efficiency and you should als be prepared to experience extra heat and other unwanted issues.
As with any hydraulic system, there is an optimum level of cleanliness, but there is a point where you cannot get any better performance out of the system by improving the quality of the fluid. However, with the use of hydraulic filters you should be well set to extend the life of your machinery.
What do farmers, firemen and fruit pickers all have in common? Well, firstly they all begin with F, they’re all hard grafters but the most important similarity is that they all work with some pretty cool machines on a daily basis. I mean if they didn’t then how would farmers harvest potatoes, firemen rescue people who are stuck at the top of burning buildings and how would fruit pickers pick fruit from the highest trees? Thanks to the machinery they use (which are all powered by a hydraulic power unit), their jobs are made so much easier.
So what is a hydraulic power unit?
In a nutshell, a hydraulic power unit is a mechanism that transforms one form of energy into a fluid form. The hydraulic power unit is capable of moving the fluid, if the fluid reaches obstacles it pressurises and is then capable of mechanical force. The power transported by the fluid is then used to power machinery and it could easily lift a car or a tree.
What affects a hydraulic power unit’s performance?
Some important elements that impact the performance of a hydraulic power unit are the reservoir volume, power capability and pressure limits. Its physical size and pumping strength also play a part in its performance.
Who relies on hydraulic power units?
As we have already mentioned hydraulic power units are used by a variety of industries across the globe. Commonly they can be seen powering machinery in the construction, automotive, manufacturing and entertainment industry and the power supplies vary depending on the machine it needs to work with.
In everyday life you may be surprised at the amount of machines powered by hydraulic power units, that help society function that little bit better. From bin men and their garbage trucks, to fairground rides that we like to enjoy, hydraulics is a big part of our life and most of us don’t even realise. All the drivers among also use the power of hydraulics whenever we brake.
After this article, I'm sure you would agree with us when we say that hydraulics are pretty impressive.
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