How to read hydraulic circuits Hydraulics symbols are an essential component of hydraulic circuit diagrams. Knowing some of the basic principles will help understand a wider range of symbols. Explaining the common ISO1219 symbols enables a complete hydraulic system to be followed: 1. Hydraulic Pump Hydraulic pump produces flow. Oil is pumped from the hydraulic reservoir into the system. The basic symbol for a pump: A fixed displacement pump is the simplest type and has a fixed output for each revolution of the input shaft. Modifications to this symbol describe the variable displacement pump. The types of control circuits show how the output is varied. 2. Filter Filters clean oil entering the system, and are used in various places within a system. They protect hydraulic valves and pumps. Suction filters are placed at pump inlets to ensure only clean oil enters the system. Pressure filters can be placed throughout system. Return filters are common and filter oil returning to the reservoir. 3. Pressure Relief Valve Pressure in a hydraulic system should be limited to control the force any motive devices produce and to ensure the safe/design limits are not exceeded. A pressure relief valve symbol is normally shown as: A pressure relief valve or PRV passes fluid from an area of higher pressure to a lower pressure (typically the tank). Hydraulic pressure shown by the dotted line acts as a pilot to actuate the PRV by moving the arrow across the box. This happens when the pilot pressure produces an internal force equal to the spring load the valve begins to open and pass flow. 4. Check Valve This valve is a one way valve that prevents flow in one direction. The addition of a spring ensures the valve will only open when this pressure is exceeded. Dotted pilot lines can be added so that pilot operating pressures can be used to open the valve and allow flow in the reverse direction. Commonly used to hold pressure in a hydraulic cylinder. 5. Hydraulic Reservoir (tank) Hydraulic systems all have a means of storing hydraulic fluid. This is referred to as the hydraulic reservoir. Hydraulic reservoirs are shown as: Vented hydraulic reservoirs are common place, but sealed systems can be found ion aerospace and marine applications. The return lines shown indicate the position above or below the oil level. 6. Directional Control Valve Hydraulic fluid flow is controlled by a directional control valve . Commonly consists of four parts, valve body, spool, actuator, and spring s. The spool is moved with respect to the valve body, this opens and closes internal flow galleries to control fluid flow. Various types of actuators provide power to shift the spool and springs are normally used to return the spool when the actuator is de-energised. Look at the typical three position four way valve: How to read directional control valve symbols: a. Each box in the valve symbol represents a possible valve condition. In the three position valve above there are 3 possible conditions controlled by the actuators. b. Number of ways tells you how many hydraulic connections could be connected to the valve. c. Actuators always push and never pull the spool. d. The box furthest away from the actuator is the normal or de-energized position, and is the position where the circuit connections are drawn. In the above valve this is the middle position. 7. Hydraulic Cylinder Hydraulic cylinder or actuator uses hydraulic power to generate mechanical force. A hydraulic cylinder is shown as: A double acting cylinder (above) has two ports and is therefore powered in and out. Single acting cylinders have one port and would typically be used for lifting applications. We hope this gives you a useful introduction to hydraulic circuits. For a full list of hydraulic symbols can be found in ISO1219, or contact www.hydraproducts.co.uk for more help.